Retrieved from https://biologydictionary.net/selective-breeding/. In the early years of the Roman Republic, a Roman father was obliged by law to immediately kill his child if they were "dreadfully deformed". By analogy, the term is used in human reproduction, but more commonly refers to the genetic disorders and other consequences that may arise from expression of deleterious or recessive traits resulting from incestuous sexual relationships and consanguinity. In the late 19th century a new discipline developed in Great Britain somewhere between anthropology, medicine, and biology for which its founder, Francis Galton, coined the term "eugenics". Many countries enacted various eugenics policies, including: genetic screenings, birth control, promoting differential birth rates, marriage restrictions, segregation (both racial segregation and sequestering the mentally ill), compulsory sterilization, forced abortions or forced pregnancies, ultimately culminating in genocide. Sutherland identified eugenists as a major obstacle to the eradication and cure of tuberculosis in his 1917 address "Consumption: Its Cause and Cure", and criticism of eugenists and Neo-Malthusians in his 1921 book Birth Control led to a writ for libel from the eugenist Marie Stopes. Other articles where Selective breeding is discussed: zoology: Applied zoology: …largely as a consequence of selective breeding and improved animal nutrition. Daniel J. Kevles (1985). , Types of eugenic practices have existed for millennia.  Attempts by the Eugenics Education Society to persuade the British government to legalize voluntary sterilization were opposed by Catholics and by the Labour Party. It’s also known as artificial selection. Inherit. the breeding of organisms for desirable traits. , Set of beliefs and practices that aim to improve the genetic quality of a human population, Controversy over scientific and moral legitimacy, Histories of eugenics (academic accounts), sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBlack2003 (. The purpose of selective breeding is to This was a situation where the local indigenous people were systematically controlled in a way that would slowly breed out their skin colour and culture. Culling is a form of selective breeding. changes in .  These laws were part of a broader policy of racial segregation in the United States to minimize contact between people of different ethnicities.  Negative eugenics aimed to eliminate, through sterilization or segregation, those deemed physically, mentally, or morally "undesirable".  This view was shared by then-White House Assistant Director for Forensic Sciences, Tania Simoncelli, who stated in a 2003 publication by the Population and Development Program at Hampshire College that advances in pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) are moving society to a "new era of eugenics", and that, unlike the Nazi eugenics, modern eugenics is consumer driven and market based, "where children are increasingly regarded as made-to-order consumer products". In 1985, incentives were significantly reduced after public uproar. The elevated prevalence of certain genetically transmitted diseases among the Ashkenazi Jewish population (Tay–Sachs, cystic fibrosis, Canavan's disease, and Gaucher's disease), has been decreased in current populations by the application of genetic screening. ", "The New Eugenics in Cinema: Genetic Determinism and Gene Therapy in GATTACA. Race laws and practices in the United States were explicitly used as models by the Nazi regime when it developed the Nuremberg Laws, stripping Jewish citizens of their citizenship.  In 1883, one year after Darwin's death, Galton gave his research a name: eugenics.  In this, Pope Pius XI explicitly condemned sterilization laws: "Public magistrates have no direct power over the bodies of their subjects; therefore, where no crime has taken place and there is no cause present for grave punishment, they can never directly harm, or tamper with the integrity of the body, either for the reasons of eugenics or for any other reason.". Charles Darwin coined the term ' selective breeding'.  The book The Passing of the Great Race (Or, The Racial Basis of European History) by American eugenicist, lawyer, and amateur anthropologist Madison Grant was published in 1916.  Throughout its recent history, eugenics has remained controversial. He claims that human lives would no longer seem meaningful in a world where such limitations could be overcome with technology. Today there are over 400 breeds of dog, meaning they have the widest phenotype range of any mammal. Sterilized individuals, for example, could volunteer for the procedure, albeit under incentive or duress, or at least voice their opinion. Ward's 1913 article "Eugenics, Euthenics, and Eudemics", Chesterton's 1917 book Eugenics and Other Evils, and Boas' 1916 article "Eugenics" (published in The Scientific Monthly) were all harshly critical of the rapidly growing movement. Selective Breeding vs. Transgenesis Intro: The following report is going to compare two different types of human manipulation; selective breeding and transgenesis and the biological implications of each. The authors write: “These results indicate that through selective breeding, humans have significantly altered the brains of different lineages of domestic dogs in different ways. Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically. The procedure involves identifying certain desirable features and finding two members of a species that exhibit the particular feature. Selective breeding is a practice that has been done by humans since hundreds of years ago. It is a way of ensuring that those individuals with undesirable characteristics do not pass on the alleles for those traits, while increasing the frequency with which individuals with more favourable characteristics pass on their alleles. Emphasis is placed on the following vocabulary terms: variation, species, selective breeding. Would selective breeding work for humans? Choose from 500 different sets of term:artificial selection = selective breeding flashcards on Quizlet. Selective breeding (or artificial selection) is a process in which rats are bred for a particular trait or phenotype. Around 10,000 years ago when humans began living in permanent or semi-permanent settlements, they started to cultivate their own crops and herd flocks of livestock for the first time. He argues that it is possible for societies to benefit from renouncing particular technologies, using as examples Ming China, Tokugawa Japan and the contemporary Amish.  Yet another criticism of contemporary eugenics policies is that they propose to permanently and artificially disrupt millions of years of evolution, and that attempting to create genetic lines "clean" of "disorders" can have far-reaching ancillary downstream effects in the genetic ecology, including negative effects on immunity and on species resilience. , The idea of a modern project for improving the human population through selective breeding was originally developed by Francis Galton, and was initially inspired by Darwinism and its theory of natural selection. During the ten years President Alberto Fujimori led Peru from 1990 to 2000, 2,000 persons were allegedly involuntarily sterilized. Selective breeding uses artificial selection to direct the genetic transfer of desirable traits. " Others, such as bioethicist Stephen Wilkinson of Keele University and Honorary Research Fellow Eve Garrard at the University of Manchester, claim that some aspects of modern genetics can be classified as eugenics, but that this classification does not inherently make modern genetics immoral. Bred animals are known as breeds, while bred plants are known as varieties, cultigens. Humans can 'influence' evolution through selective breeding resulting in the variety of breeds we see today. In contemporary usage, the term eugenics is closely associated with scientific racism and white supremacy. A/CONF. “Selective Breeding.” Biology Dictionary. a particular population or species. Selective breeding is a method used by humans to develop new organisms with a, particularly desirable characteristic. The United States and the Making of Nazi Race Laws, Princeton University Press 2003, Article 2 of the Convention defines genocide as any of the following acts committed with, harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBlack2003 (, A discussion of the shifting meanings of the term can be found in, Shaw, p. 147. But selective breeding, when taken to the extreme, can lead to the development of genetic disorders. Global warming at the end of the Ice Agecreated drought in areas where rainfall had previously provided sufficient water, forcing people to congregate around reliable wat… Artificial Selection. Anti-miscegenation laws in the United States made it a crime for individuals to wed someone categorized as belonging to a different race. Another criticism is that eugenics policies eventually lead to a loss of genetic diversity, thereby resulting in inbreeding depression due to a loss of genetic variation. Selective breeding also requires controlled mating.  Philosophers disagree about the proper framework for reasoning about such actions, which change the very identity and existence of future persons. Although influential, the book was largely ignored when it first appeared, and it went through several revisions and editions. , The first major challenge to conventional eugenics based on genetic inheritance was made in 1915 by Thomas Hunt Morgan. Selective breeding is a way of maintaining animal existence. All modern dogs have been selectively bred by humans over thousands of years. , With this change, however, there are ethical concerns which lack adequate attention, and which must be addressed before eugenic policies can be properly implemented in the future.  In spite of the decline in discriminatory eugenics laws, some government mandated sterilizations continued into the 21st century.  Galton published his observations and conclusions in his book Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development. As opposed to natural selection, selective breeding focuses on traits which will benefit humans. When did humans begin to selectively breed livestock and crops? In this process, breeders select two parents, which have useful phenotypic to produce offspring with desirable qualities. B. S. Haldane wrote that "the motor bus, by breaking up inbred village communities, was a powerful eugenic agent.  In his lecture "Darwinism, Medical Progress and Eugenics", Pearson claimed that everything concerning eugenics fell into the field of medicine. Typically, strains that are selectively bred are domesticated, and the breeding is normally done by a professional breeder. The key words here are "preserve" and "prevent". Inbreeding results in … selection process . These included Karl Pearson and Walter Weldon, who worked on this at the University College London. Advances in science have changed eugenics. : the process of modifying the characteristics of living things especially to enhance one or more desirable traits by selection in breeding controlled by humans After about three years of selective breeding, their company, Cavendish Game Birds, was able to deliver quail … The animals which are left in the population go on to reproduce, whilst genes controlling for the undesirable traits are removed from the population. Those deemed "unfit to reproduce" often included people with mental or physical disabilities, people who scored in the low ranges on different IQ tests, criminals and "deviants", and members of disfavored minority groups. Some, such as UC Berkeley sociologist Troy Duster, have claimed that modern genetics is a back door to eugenics.  Its scientific aspects were carried on through research bodies such as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics, the Cold Spring Harbor Carnegie Institution for Experimental Evolution, and the Eugenics Record Office.  Politically, the movement advocated measures such as sterilization laws.  Its racist elements included pursuit of a pure "Nordic race" or "Aryan" genetic pool and the eventual elimination of "unfit" races.  Organizations were formed to win public support and sway opinion towards responsible eugenic values in parenthood, including the British Eugenics Education Society of 1907 and the American Eugenics Society of 1921. , Eugenics became an academic discipline at many colleges and universities and received funding from many sources. 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